For centuries mankind believed that life only existed here on Earth, but today many scientists agree that we are not alone.
Practically every human civilization that has ever existed tells us we are not alone in the cosmos.
A long, long time ago, extraterrestrials came here, and through a targeted mutation of our genes, we became human.
We have, in theory, a worldwide civilization that has extraterrestrials interacting with it, and human beings, as we are today, who are possibly the genetic breeding of these aliens.
If we’re being visited, they’ve probably always been here.
Millions of people around the world believe we have been visited in the past by extraterrestrial beings.
But what if it were true? Did ancient aliens really help to shape our history? And if so, why did they come here? And just what was their mission? On July 20, 1969, the Apollo 11 mission reached its destination, and two men– Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin– actually walked on the moon.
They’ve got the flag up now, and you can see the Stars and Stripes on the lunar surface.
Beautiful, just beautiful.
It was the first time in history that beings left their home and traveled through space to an alien planet.
Or was it? Were we really the first creatures in the universe capable of traveling to another world? Given the vastness of the universe and the billions of years that it took to create our galaxy, is it so hard to imagine that such a thing might have happened before, perhaps thousands of times and over the course of millions of years?
The ancient alien astronaut theory presupposes that thousands and thousands of years ago– even before recorded history– Earth was visited by astronauts from another world.
But if alien beings did, in fact, travel to Earth, why? Did they come to explore, to plunder, to study, to hunt, or to breed? When Armstrong and Aldrin explored their incredible surroundings, they found the moon a barren landscape.
It seemed to offer little more than a lifeless oasis of rocks and dust.
But in 1986, further testing determined that the lunar landscape actually contains a high amount of helium-3, an extremely powerful nonpolluting, nonradioactive fuel source.
Experts estimate that a single space shuttle filled with this material could satisfy all the energy needs in the United States for an entire year.
Think of it.
Armadas of spaceships mining the moon and other planets for natural resources.
Could this help explain why Earth might have served as a destination for travelers from other worlds? We’d go out there with robot mining crews and eventually human mining crews, mine those planets, extract the ore.
Ships would come; they’d take the ore and bring them back.
Well, if we would do it, why wouldn’t extraterrestrials? But if alien excavators did come to Earth– perhaps thousands of years ago– wouldn’t there be evidence?
Here, in what is now known as Iraq, lies what is commonly regarded by historians and archaeologists as the “cradle of civilization.”
Between 3500 and 1900 BC, the fertile area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers was the home of the Sumerian people.
The Sumerians were one of the first cultures that built actual cities with streets and a street grid, almost like New York City, where you have, you know, a square street grid.
They invented cobblestones.
They had a sewage system.
They were taught in agriculture.
The Sumerians also invented the first known writing system by using the cuneiform script on clay tablets.
In the 19th century, archaeologists exploring the ancient ruins of Nineveh discovered When they were later translated, the texts described many stories similar to those found in the Judeo-Christian Bible.
Virtually every story that’s in Genesis– the flood story, the Adam and Eve story– they all have precedence with the ancient Sumerians.
In 1976 author Zecharia Sitchin published his own translations of the Sumerian texts in a series of books called The Earth Chronicles.
According to Sitchin, the clay tablets describe an alien race known as the Anunnaki who came to Earth to mine gold.
Zecharia Sitchin has essentially suggested that the reason why we were visited in the remote past is because the ancient astronauts’ home planet needed gold for their atmosphere and that their gold content in the atmosphere was depleted, so they came to Earth in order to mine gold and bring it back to their home planet.
But why gold? What are the unique properties of this precious metal that might make it important and worth traveling through the galaxy for? I think, for extraterrestrials, gold would be an important resource just as it is for us.
If it’s at all like our society, one of the major things it’s going to be built on is electricity, and gold really is one of the top conductors, and its malleability and its ability to make it into wires, use it in really small forms as nanoparticles are going to make it an incredible technological resource for any sort of life- forms that reach that level of dealing with electricity and technology as we do.
One of the exciting directions is possibly as an energy source through properties called thermoelectric effects, where it can take the heat and turn it directly into electricity.
This would be obviously a very nice clean energy source.
With its capacity to create energy and conduct heat, some scientists believe gold may also be an invaluable asset in the construction of spaceships.
Gold actually reflects infrared light.
Infrared is basically light that’s not quite red, and so you don’t see it, but we interact with it as heat.
The radiation will interact with your molecules and make them vibrate faster and you’ll feel that as heat, so it makes a great heat shield, partly because it’s so malleable.
You can make it very thin; it’s easy to work with, and it has great properties for reflecting and heat protection.
The only metal that really lasts is gold. Gold is indestructible. All gold from ancient times still exists today.
If you look at Zecharia Sitchin’s theories– that E.T’s came down from another planet in our solar system, which is on a 3,600-year elliptical orbit, that they were running out of minerals, and gold specifically, that they somehow needed to line their atmosphere with.
These extraterrestrials–they just first measure our planet. And they have the instrument to find out: where on this planet do we find raw material?
Through their incredible equipment, they find a planet that has this. It’s got gold.
So they decide “We’re going to go there and we’re going to mine.” So they send some expeditions to planet Earth.
All of a sudden they get here and the factions begin to say, “Well, there’s a lot of gold here, but we’re not digging it out. What are we going to do? We need workers.”
The story that came down to the Sumerians is that the Anunnaki were mining gold on the earth, and the run-of-the-mill workers complained, said: “This is really hard work and we’re tired. We don’t want to do this anymore.”
And so they had a big council and they decided to create a primitive worker called an Adamu.
So they look at what is on this planet, and that is Homo erectus, and they say, “Well, they’re not very intelligent and they’re not going to listen to us, so we’re going to genetically alter them.”
The Anunnaki created humans as a slave species. According to Zecharia Sitchin, the Adamu were the first modern humans.
They were created by the Anunnaki 450,000 years ago when they genetically mixed their DNA with that of prehistoric man.
They took one cell of one of these ancestors of us.
They changed the cell by an artificial mutation.
They changed the DNA code, what our genetics are doing every day.
This is not something made up.
This is part of the Sumerian history.
They believed that the gods came down and created them, and they were their slave species.
They knew that, and they didn’t have any philosophical beliefs about the purpose of man or anything.
If you believe Sitchin’s theory that mankind was created by E.T’s for slave labor, all of a sudden it makes sense.
And then when you look at the biblical terms of what may have happened– Adam and Eve? Sure, they may have been two individuals back a long time ago, the beginning of time.
But perhaps Adam and Eve were the first of the genetically created human beings.
Closer comparisons between the Hebrew Bible and the Sumerian texts reveal many similarities, not only in their stories but also in their language.
“Adam” is Hebrew for “man.”
“Adamu” is what the Sumerians refer to as “first man,” the Anunnaki slaves.
But do the Sumerian tablets actually describe an alien race, a race that conducted mining operations on a global scale?
Thousands of miles away, on the African continent, ruins of ancient gold mines have recently been discovered.
The largest concentration can be found in South Africa, where some excavations, according to scientists, dating back some 150,000 years.
They’re in areas that have an abundance of gold right now, so it’s very possible that they could have mined it.
Now, the big question is, how do we know they weren’t human beings that simply did that? Why the E.T. theory?
In many languages in Africa, the native word for “star” means “bringer of knowledge or enlightenment.”
Some African cultures believe that extraterrestrial beings have been visiting the Earth for tens of thousands of years.
Zulu legends speak of a time when “visitors from the stars” came to excavate gold and other natural resources.
These mines were worked by “artificially produced flesh- and blood slaves created by the First People.”
Some ancient mines in Southern Africa are thought to be a hundred thousand years old or older.
If humans weren’t doing that mining a hundred thousand years ago, and making metals, then we would have to assume it would be extraterrestrials doing it.
Alien slave mines? Genetically engineered humans? To believers of ancient astronaut theory, these notions are not far-fetched fantasies or fairy tales, but facts, and they point to additional evidence of alien mining a half world away on the American continent.
Peru has long been known as “the land of gold.”
In ancient times, Incan rulers adorned themselves with it.
And when the Spanish explorers arrived in the 16th century, they sent shiploads of their plunder back home to Spain.
Gold was largely a valuable commodity because of being rare and easy to make jewelry, coinage.
And if you’re looking at, like, the ancient Incas, those people are using gold as a status symbol.
Many cultures thought it came directly from the gods.
People thought gold was so pure, so wonderful, it must heal, and they would actually occasionally ingest pure gold.
Certainly, we’re discovering more and more, as we get better at archeology and as we can look into these things, applications that people have used.
For instance, there is some evidence that ancient people had very primitive batteries, and this would be a place in which gold would be very useful because of its electrical properties and its conductivity.
It should not be surprising, then, to find archaeological evidence of ancient gold mines.
But some sites have recently been discovered that date back some 50,000 years.
All throughout areas in Peru, you see remnants of what could have been ancient mining operations.
They go down, in some cases, thousands of feet deep.
Gold turns out to be surprisingly easy to mine for, even though it’s relatively rare.
There’s a lot of common techniques ancient people used, and some of them were used, you know, well into recent times.
A lot of it, you know, involves using water, often, to change the properties of the rock around it.
A lot of heating and freezing and the gold will come loose.
In addition to gold, other ancient sites in Peru provide evidence that they were once mined for quartz hematite and red ochre.
They’re used for different things.
It’s basically silicone dioxide.
It’s kind of like glass.
It’s a great mineral; it’s hard, but it can be formed into pretty sculptures; you could make quartz statues; you could probably even use it for money before you discovered minerals and gold.
Hematite and ochre are much more valuable because of their iron oxide.
And particularly ochre is important as a pigment, so as soon as you’re gonna start having painting, cave drawings even, or any sort of artwork, you need to make colors.
And making color can be a challenge, and ochre is a great source of that.
Also located in Peru are the world-famous Nazca lines.
While the origins of these ancient geoglyphs remain a mystery, the area in which the lines are located suggests that a major excavation took place there, perhaps hundreds of centuries ago.
I mean, this all requires machining.
And I’m not talking, you know, a little wheelbarrow and-and a pick.
I’m talking sophisticated machinery because we today would also need sophisticated machinery in order to achieve such feats.
Could the vast flat plain located in the Nazca Desert be evidence of a gigantic mining operation, one that took place hundreds of thousands of years ago? Whoever comes here in a spaceship, Nazca would be like a beacon, as in: “Come here.”
Because the moment you come to Nazca, you’re sort of confronted with a Cliff Notes to planet Earth, where you have all sorts of raw materials that exist in that one particular spot in very, very abundant quantities.
I think the Nazca lines aren’t evidence of the search for gold, but they’re evidence of some communication with possibly E.T’s, or gods, from above.
But despite the controversy, one thing is plain, and the lines that scar the surrounding countryside, are not natural formations.
But while scientists and ancient astronaut theorists remain divided about who, or what, created the Nazca lines, they are in agreement about one the so-called Band of Holes, located in the Pisco Valley, Peru, is a complete mystery.
In the mountains of Peru, we have what’s commonly referred to as the Band of Holes, and it is this Band of Holes that were carved or dug into the mountainside.
It’s a bunch of little, shallow holes, dug into the ground, and it’s had all kinds of explanations.
Some people say it was just pot hunters, you know, looting, looking for burials.
Some people think it looks like some kind of machine was running over the territory.
Some people think it was some kind of systematic mining operation.
They need raw material, be it gold, be it silver, be it uranium, whatever; they need something.
And they send something down like a shuttle.
It can be a robot.
No extraterrestrial is on board.
And this robot just caresses over the surfaces and collects and measures raw material, and disappears again.
The holes run about three feet apart and measure six to seven feet in depth, and number in the thousands.
Often we see regular structures like that and we assume either a person or an intelligent life had to make it, but there are lots of examples in nature where the natural processes lead to large-scale what we call “pattern formation.”
You see it on a small scale in animals.
You look at leopards and zebras– leopards have spots; zebras have stripes.
Surprisingly, on geological scales, some of the same processes that give you spots on a leopard could give you indentations in the ground and raised areas that would look like holes.
It would take a long time over geological scales, but we’ve had a long time, and that might be what they’re left over from.
Mainstream archaeologists suggest the holes were used to store grain, but ancient astronaut theorists reject that notion.
It’s a mystery because who in their right mind would go ahead and dig all these holes? For what? The other intriguing aspect of the Band of Holes is that you can only see it from the air.
When you stand down there, all you see is a couple of holes dug into the ground, and it doesn’t really mean much.
But if you’re up in the air, there is this long band with these individual holes that you can see, and you can conceivably create some type of message that can only be seen from the air.
But if ancient aliens came to Earth searching for gold, why did they leave? More gold still exists here, as do many other valuable minerals.
Could it be that ancient mining operations were just the means to another possibly greater end? Or perhaps the real alien mission on Earth was to hunt the greatest prey in the Man.
Alamosa, Colorado. September 7, 1967.
When a three-year-old horse named Snippy went missing, her owners grew concerned and went out looking for her.
Their search yielded a gruesome and mysterious discovery.
Snippy’s body had been mutilated almost surgically.
An examination of the carcass showed that her skin and flesh had been neatly cut; her heart and brain had been removed, and a formaldehyde-like odor emitted from the remains.
An autopsy also revealed that her spinal fluid had been removed.
The events of Snippy’s death stunned the community and remain shrouded in mystery, even to this day.
Since the mutilation, an estimated 50,000 similar events have been reported around the world, most of them involving cattle.
But it was not until about the middle of the 1970’s that cattle mutilations really entered into Ufology.
Farmers would come out and find some prize livestock that was alive and healthy the day before and then it was just suddenly dead.
And it looked like it had been cut up in a rather odd way.
That certain parts of the body looked like they were cut out in ways that seemed to be almost surgical.
Television producer and UFO investigator Linda Howe has been tracking the mystery of animal mutilation for over 30 years.
I began trying to get to the bottom of what was happening to all of these animals.
There were horses, cows, other domestic animals found with the same pattern of bloodless excisions.
The law enforcement called them animal mutilations, and the first thing I felt was anger.
And then I felt nervous, and then I felt afraid.
I sat across from sheriffs who told me, “Linda, we’re not dealing with predators, disease, and satanic cults. We’re dealing with creatures from outer space.”
There are several explanations for why aliens would want to experiment on cows.
One is that they’re just looking for food.
One that they’re looking for some kind of information about vertebrate organisms.
Another one is that they’re looking for some kind of genetic material for some reason.
The closest answer I’ve ever gotten was from a man who had had very upfront, and close and personal observations of nonhumans in his work for the government.
He told me– he said, “The best answer I can give you, Linda, It’s a genetic harvest.”
But once you have said, “a genetic harvest from Earth,” there’s even a bigger question.
Why a genetic harvest from Earth? What is being made with this genetic harvest? To what end? The answer to these questions might be found in our ancient past, in the bizarre, almost Frankenstein-like experiments that were practiced by early civilizations.
We have ancient descriptions from Egypt where it says specifically that the gods created these chimeras– mixed beings, or hybrids.
We find paintings where you have a human body with a cut-off head and a red tube coming out of it, and next to it, you have just the head of some animal.
And in the next picture– ’cause they’re like– they look like comic strips almost.
And in the next picture, you see the same human body with the animal head attached to the human neck.
Incredibly, examples of strange human-animal hybrid beings date back to a time even older than ancient Egypt.
According to mainstream archeology, ancient Sumeria is the earliest civilization of humankind.
And the interesting part is the fact that their earliest writings are filled with references to these bizarre beings that descended from the sky called the Anunnaki.
Anunnaki means “those who from the heavens came.”
But is there any physical evidence of these human-animal hybrids? If so, wouldn’t we have found skeletal remains? The answer may have been found in Saqqara, Egypt, home to that country’s oldest pyramid.
Inside were two sealed and intact sarcophagi. But when Mariette opened them, what they contained was shocking. They opened the sarcophagus and they didn’t find a bull. Instead, they found this black mass of what’s called bitumen, a type of asphalt.
And inside this stinking mass, they found the bone fragments of seven different types of animals crushed up.
According to the accompanying texts, some type of monsters existed during the time of the Egyptians.
And so who knows whether or not the priests instructed the people to destroy these beings, to rip them apart, to crush their bones, and put them inside this stinking mass, and put them underneath a lid in the sarcophagus weighing 80 tons.
I mean, all in all of Egypt we can find mummified remains of every single animal, but we find these sarcophagi that contain these crushed-up bones.
Doesn’t that mean the ancient Egyptians did not want for those creatures to ever return after their death? Of course, mainstream scientists and archaeologists believe ancient Greek and Egyptian stories of animal and human hybrids are just fanciful products of the imagination.
We have not found human remains.
We do not know who they were.
But we do have scientific evidence that at least the ancient Egyptians believed firmly that they ruled.
As to whether they are just human beings, like you or I; or whether they come from somewhere else; or whether they are a hybrid being, we have no idea.
What if ancient civilizations possessed the advanced scientific knowledge of our own modern-day scientists?
What if they, too, had unlocked the mysteries of DNA: cloning and gene-splicing?
Why is this so fascinating?
Well, because if you look at this from a genetics aspect, we’re in the process right now today of being able to recreate creatures like that.
I mean, this is Frankenstein.
This is science fiction stuff.
Yet, in ancient Egypt, we have the exact same descriptions, the exact same depictions of some very bizarre, hybridization program which took place thousands of years ago.
They are mixing alien, animal and human DNA, not just for ten years or 20 years, but for thousands and thousands of years.
And that’s why there are so many alien abductions, and that’s why each generation is cyclically more advanced than the next until we get to the complete union of two cultures– the ultimate hybrid.
I think the answer clearly is, we’re not alone in this universe and we have nonhuman intelligence interacting with this planet for reasons that are still unknown to most of us.
It leaves you feeling a little nervous.
If alien beings came here, as some suggest, to perform strange mutation experiments on animals, could they have done the same on humans?
And if so why?
Life on Earth comes in a tremendous diversity of shapes and sizes.
It can be found from the depths of the deepest oceans to the peaks of the highest mountains.
But the vast array of life-forms we see today is only a small portion of what has existed on this planet during its millions of years of history.
In fact, scientists estimate that 97% of all the species that have ever lived on Earth are now extinct.
Most scientists today will tell us that there have been six major extinction events that have occurred during the history of life on Earth.
The most recent of these extinction events was the one that occurred 65 million years ago and wiped out the dinosaurs.
Paleontologists attribute these mass extinctions to natural causes such as meteor strikes floods and dropping sea levels.
But another theory suggests that these extinctions were not caused by nature, but by alien beings.
In the ancient Sumerian texts, they can control the weather, they can cause droughts, and they did this to humans.
They are capable of producing their own disasters.
But were now-extinct life-forms actually exterminated in order to make way for other, perhaps more docile or desirable species? Was the intent to clear the way for colonization? Or invasion? And if so, what sort of technology would be needed to effect such a widespread change? Some theories say that we have that technology now, called scalar technology.
We heat up to high, electrical impulses, a certain spot on the water, and that creates a hurricane.
And by making a path with that beam, you can track the hurricane.
Now if we can do that– and this is hypothetical– if we can do that, why can’t an alien culture say, “Let’s create an ice age on planet Earth?” It will kill off the dinosaurs, but pave the way for aliens to implant human beings on planet Earth.
Did alien beings come to Earth in order to stay?
Might they, as some believe, have seeded it with their own genetic offspring?
If so, where is the proof?
Some ancient astronaut theorists point to myths that describe gods coming down from the heavens in order to mate with humans.
Ancient texts talk about the fact that whoever visited the earth in the remote past, these gods, believed that Earth women were quite beautiful.
So, in many occasions, we find stories where those visitors essentially mated with Earth women.
It was misinterpreted, misunderstood as something divine that came here.
They were flesh-and-blood extraterrestrials.
Native American folklore refers to those beings who came down from the heavens to breed with Earth women as Star People.
The Star People are extraterrestrial people.
They are not from this earth. They visit. They are star ancestors.
There’s a great deal of, uh, of interaction between them.
Like some of the American Indian star husband tales where some woman sleeping outside at night looks up at a star and thinks it’s very beautiful and would like to go there, and winds up finding herself in the morning being pulled up into heaven and meeting with the supernatural being who was associated with that star in becoming the bride of the star husband.
According to Native American mythology, the brides of these alien beings would become pregnant and give birth to star children.
They would be raised by the native mother until the age of six when they went to live with their star father.
Similar stories of intimate encounters between celestial beings and humans can be found in ancient Hebrew and Judeo-Christian testaments often referred to as The Pseudepigraph, or what many refer to as the Apocrypha.
There are lots of instances in the Pseudepigraph– these are the books that didn’t make it into the Bible– where people are visited by beings that aren’t from this earth.
Before the Bible became the Bible of today, there were many additional books that used to be a part of the Bible.
They were removed in what was called the Council of Nicaea because those books contained too much information, dangerous knowledge.
In Genesis 6, where it talks about these watchers that are kind of angels that came down from heaven and had sex with the women of the earth.
These strangers had sex with beautiful young girls on our planet.
How can angels have sex? This is impossible.
In our point, in our view, angels were something spiritual, not something who has a body and has a feeling of sex.
But they had sex.
Our prehistoric ancestors could not understand, and they believe that these extraterrestrials are some kind of gods.
The conception of the Christ.
An angel comes to the holy mother, to the Virgin Mary, and tells her that she’s going to be blessed by God with a child.
And then, essentially, she finds herself pregnant.
There is an angelic reality point in the New Testament.
And whether it be at the birth of Jesus or his resurrection, we’ve got the possibility of other powers from another world being involved from the beginning to the end.
The more literal version is the idea that Jesus is strictly alien, which, of course, in a sense, he is as, uh You know, even if you take him as the son of God, then obviously, he is not of this earth.
I tend to believe that Jesus was a very spiritual human being who understood a lot of things that we’re beginning to learn today.
But it’s also very possible that he might have been an extraterrestrial who came down to teach us things.
That divine intelligence is very real in some form or fashion.
Tales of gods mating with humans are prevalent in everything from Greek and Roman mythology to Native American legends.
In China, at the end of the fifth century BC, the country was divided into seven states, each ruled by powerful warlords who battled for territory and power.
It was during this turbulent era when the legendary story of Huangdi first appeared.
A great god took the form of a dragon, came down to a hilltop where a young maiden was out gathering fruit.
And as this great dragon came near, the sky darkened.
It was like a storm.
She was terrified, and she passed out.
When she came awake again, uh, the sun had come out again, and the dragon was gone, and she was pregnant.
Much like the story of the Virgin Mary and Jesus, the story of Huangdi told of an earthling woman who would give birth to him– the legendary first emperor of China who ushered in a time of great change.
Gods deliberately bred with humans so that they could produce, they could get a race that they could trust and control a little bit better.
In my mind, legends and-and myths are based on something real– while they have been mythified and distorted and exaggerated, in many cases– but there is, in my mind, some core of truth here.
Another prevalent theme in ancient texts, myths, and religions is that of a cataclysm of some kind.
Usually, these come in the form of an intense flood, fire, or other devastating catastrophes.
In the Hebrew Bible, for example, God punishes mankind for their decadence and sinful ways.
He sends punishment in the form of a great flood which destroys nearly all living things on the planet, except for Noah, his family, and the animals rescued aboard his ark.
Similar stories can be found in numerous ancient texts.
Many of the mythical tales of most civilizations include some kind of idea that there are gods that came to Earth at some point.
One interpretation has been that these are literal descriptions of visitors from space.
Not gods, but some creatures of with advanced technology that came to Earth in times past, and either created mankind, brought culture to the Earth, brought civilization, and then, for some reason, departed, usually under some kind of breach between mankind and the gods.
Take the case of the once-thriving Mesoamerican cultures of the Aztecs and the Mayans.
By the year 1500 AD, they had all but vanished.
But why? Was there a natural disaster of some kind? Or is there another, more otherworldly explanation? At some point, it all crashed in a cataclysmic disaster.
And the world, as they knew it, came to an end. And tidal waves washed across continents. Areas of the planet went under later. And the megalithic building that was going on then, too, also completely stopped. And it’s what we see at certain areas.
Like in Peru, where giant blocks of granite have been quarried and partially moved to where they were going.
But then it all came to a sudden, complete halt.
For nearly 3,000 years, the Mayan civilization thrived in Central America.
Among their many accomplishments, the ancient Maya invented a remarkably complex and accurate calendar.
According to scholars, the calendar started on August 11, 3114 BC.
The first calendar cycle ends about 5,000 years later on December 21, 2012.
But why? Did the Mayans know something about mankind’s future– something we have forgotten or chosen to ignore? There’s a lot of excitement being generated now about the Mayan calendar ending in the year 2012, and if there is such a cataclysm or some massive Earth change that’s suddenly going to occur.
And so the idea that ancient people, like the Maya say, were somehow totally in tune with this and had knowledge of these kinds of vast cosmic cycles, which apparently led to cataclysmic changes on the Earth, that’s the kind of advanced knowledge that we wouldn’t expect them to have.
And where would they get that kind of knowledge? You would think that would have to come from extraterrestrials.
If we accept the notion that alien beings left behind the Mayan calendar as some type of ancient advanced warning device, might they have left other astronomical instruments here on Earth? And if so, why was it so important for ancient civilizations to track the stars? The stars.
Since the beginning of time, man has gazed in wonder at the night sky.
Stars became the stuff of legends, home of the gods and sometimes, man’s final resting place.
It is no surprise then that ancient man built monuments dedicated to these celestial wonders.
When we look at ancient monuments around the world– these Mesolithic structures– we find that many of them are aligned astronomically to the sun, to planets, to stars Numerous examples can be listed.
Stonehenge is essentially an ancient astronomical observatory.
It may have been used for religious purposes.
But it’s very clear that it was also used for astronomical purposes, for observations.
We’re not surprised whether it’s Stonehenge, pyramids, or perhaps the Nazca Lines that ancient people understood events that were going to happen in the sky, and when they would repeat.
But why was the ancient man so fixated on the sky?
And why did they construct elaborate stone monuments and temples in order to track the movements of the stars?
Was it simply to help farmers know when to plant their crops?
Or might there have been another, perhaps more profound purpose? Could they, as some believe, have been constructed as a type of extraterrestrial GPS system?
Nabta Playa, Egypt.
Egypt’s Nubian Desert sits one of the oldest astronomical sites ever discovered. In 1974, archaeologist Fred Wendorf almost passed it by before noticing its small stone artifacts and toppled rocks.
It’s a very strange site. It’s just strange stone formations, circles, uh, stone alignments.
Bizarre trigger lines with strange rocks and others.
Later excavations put the date of the astronomical device at approximately 5000 BC, making it close to 1,000 years older than the remarkably similar formation at Stonehenge.
When they brought an astronomer there, they realized that it was a ceremonial site, very intensely astronomical.
The intriguing thing about this site is that it shows that they were tracking stars over thousands of years.
And to track stars over that period, they must have have been aware of what we call “precession,” which means they weren’t simply astronomers or ancient astronomers.
They were very sophisticated astronomers.
Could the people who built Nabta Playa 7,000 years ago have possessed an advanced understanding of physics and astronomy?
One that rivals or, perhaps, surpasses our own?
And why were they tracking Orion and Sirius?
In 1994, the mystery of Nabta Playa took on even greater significance when Robert Bauval announced a surprising discovery along Egypt’s Giza Plateau.
The Great Pyramid contained four long interior shafts.
Bauval determined that they were each precisely aligned with specific stars in the sky.
The southerners aligned to the belt of Orion and to Sirius, and the northern ones aligned to the second pole stars.
Again, this is very intriguing.
In terms of construction engineering, that’s, that’s bulls-eye.
As an engineer, I know that it’s one thing building a pyramid.
But it’s another thing building a pyramid with that kind of precision.
Bauval also proved that the three pyramids of Giza were laid out in the precise order and position of the three stars of the Orion’s Belt constellation.
But what exactly is the significance of the shaft alignment and the layout of the pyramids themselves? I mean, we’re deciphering a message.
The question is whether it is religious or whether it is a stellar message.
The fact is that what we have on the ground is an image of a constellation that we know now is the birthplace of stars.
Literally, stars are being born there.
And the Egyptians themselves believed that their gods had descended from the stars.
That could be either a knowledge of ancient astronomy, or it could also be a road map to where these E.T’s may have come from.
But why were the ancients so fixated on the Orion and Sirius constellations? Some believe the answer can be found on the other side of the world in North America.
More than 3,000 years old, it is estimated that it took approximately 1,400 years to complete.
Even though the Cholula Pyramid doesn’t look like much because of the overgrown jungle, it is, in fact, the world’s largest monument ever constructed by human hands.
In fact, the volume of the Cholula pyramid– the whole pyramid complex– is 4.
The great pyramid in Egypt only has 2.
5 million cubic meters in volume.
So, the great pyramid at Giza is way taller than the Cholula Pyramid, but volume-wise, the Cholula Pyramid is, by far, the largest man-made structure ever created on planet Earth.
Originally built by the Olmecs in the third century BC, it was later added on to and used by the Toltecs and the Aztecs as a place of religious ritual and human sacrifice.
But along with its history of bloodshed, an examination of the pyramid reveals that the ancient cultures of the region had a remarkable understanding of astronomy.
It’s interesting to consider what the Aztec people thought about its origins.
They did not think it was built by humans, like us, which is our theory today.
If you look at the Aztec cosmology, you’ll see that these giant beings were identified with different celestial objects.
The one, in particular, that is said to have built the Cholula Pyramid is identified with the planet Venus.
Both the Aztecs and the ancient Egyptians charted most of the planets in the solar system thousands of years before European astronomers.
But why? And even more compelling is the fact that the two cultures were thousands of miles and half a world apart.
Mainstream archaeologists are telling us that all these civilizations around the world– in the Americas, on remote Pacific islands, in Asia and Africa and Europe– that they’re all disconnected with each other, and that there wasn’t some contact with South America, and Egypt, or any of these ancient civilizations.
But really, it has to be the other way around.
All of these ancient civilizations were connected in some way.
But were these holy sites, as ancient astronaut proponents suggest, really connected to each other? And if so, why? Are they evidence of aliens coming to earth? Whoa, I’m getting a series of lights right there.
I got it, I got it, I got it.
These reports that we continue to get from people of E.T. visitations and craft, clearly points out to me that we’re being visited.
And we have been visited. Oh, there it is– over to the left. They may have physically left the planet, in terms of a civilization.
But they– they’re continuing to come back and monitor us for some reason.
If aliens are watching us today, what are they waiting for?
Or, as some claim, have they already left messages for us in plain view? county of Wiltshire, the English countryside remains pretty much as it has for thousands of years.
Small farms, stone walls, and rolling green hills provide inhabitants with an environment of peace and stability.
This historic region is also home to a large number of ancient sacred sites, many built thousands of years ago.
It’s an ancient, sacred landscape where most of them occur.
There are monuments that you know about: Stonehenge, Avebury, Silbury Hill.
This is one small area that seems to be a manipulated landscape that was done thousands of years ago where sacred rituals have taken place.
But in 1978, Wiltshire’s tranquil landscape became the focus of a controversy that persists to this day.
Today alongside the tracks of farm machinery, a new set of circles were found.
No human tracks lead to the markings.
There, carved in fields of wheat, barley and rye were elaborate geometric patterns.
Even more curious was the fact that much like the famed Nazca Lines of Peru, the designs were only visible from the air.
When you see it for the first time, you go, “What in the world is that doing there?” I mean, it’s obviously not natural.
There have been cases that have been traced back for hundreds of years– so-called mowing devil, where apparently some sort of a devil supposedly mowed a field in a single night.
But they became recognized as a phenomenon only when these circles started appearing in English wheat fields.
They were very simple things at first.
And, well– but they kept occurring year after year, and each year they seemed to get a little more elaborate.
One of the early theories was that there was some kind of whirlwind that was making them.
But as they became more elaborate, they also became associated with a paranormal activity, particularly UFOs.
Some people said they saw a light in the field at night.
And some people that– began to read that was a UFO presence.
This circle in a Wiltshire field is just one of discovered in the last six weeks.
To farmers and scientists, how they’re formed or by whom remains a big mystery.
Not surprisingly, the region became the focus of intense interest from UFO enthusiasts and skeptics, each offering explanations as to who or what was responsible for this strange phenomenon.
But if in fact, alien beings from another planet were responsible for the crop circles, why were they making them in England?
Were they trying to contact us or were there clues embedded in the designs?
And was the proximity to Stonehenge and other ancient sites of any particular significance? So you have the idea of these earth energies, and these ancient structures, and then the crop circles are appearing around them.
And many of the crop circles appear to be some kind of signals and ancient writing.
The crop circles are calling us back to a time before science and spirit got separated when we were whole; we had a sense of wholeness.
And here, they’re landing near sacred sites that are from an ancient time when we did experience those things.
When I saw the first photographs, I was haunted, actually.
Are these extraterrestrials doing this?
Are we dealing with somebody who knows how to bend space and time? Our entire relationship with the universe and quantum physics– in all of its complexities– has been pushed hard by crop formations alone.
Certainly, it is one theory that extraterrestrials are trying to communicate in a big way through popular media.
Crop circles do get in newspapers all over the world.
Perhaps that’s what they want. These are being carefully designed. They’re not accidental– both, in terms of the shape, and where they land. These aren’t accidents. There’s a mind behind this that’s making these decisions.
Where is that mind? What kind of body is it in?
Scientists struggled to find an explanation for the phenomenon, until in British pranksters, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, came forward and proclaimed that they were the ones responsible.
They showed how they could make crop circles in a single night using some very simple tools.
And at the time, people said, “Well, that must be the explanation for it.”
Nevertheless, some researchers remain skeptical that a single pair of elderly men could have created literally hundreds of designs in the dead of night with little more than a few boards and some rope.
You know, it was very effective.
You still will run into people– “Crop circles– oh, forget about them. Those two old guys made a come on, don’t be so naive! They-they were done by those two old guys years ago. What are you paying attention to them anymore?”
It is a very effective piece of disinformation.
During the years that followed Bower and Chorley’s confession, crop circles continued to appear in the English countryside and at various locations around the world.
Some were inarguably the work of artists or jokesters.
But after studying soil samples and grain dispersion patterns in the disturbed farmland, researchers concluded that it would be impossible for all of these designs to be man-made.
Well, in what we would consider being a mysterious crop circle, where we can’t identify it being made by people– the lay is absolutely beautiful.
The lay of the crop.
It’s like a million carpet layers came down, and put these stalks of grain down, right parallel to one another.
It’s just a gorgeous thing to behold.
When the hoaxers make them, they tend to be sloppy and messy because they’re not they haven’t got that same force.
They’re doing handmade manipulation, which doesn’t lay them down quite as beautifully.
In 1991, noted biophysicist Dr. William Levengood put forth a startling new theory.
After spending ten years studying crop circle sites and samples, he concluded that they were created by a complex energy system, which he called a spinning plasma vortex that comes down from somewhere high up in the atmosphere.
Biophysicist Levengood has now analyzed 350-some samples from crop formations in his career.
Now, if Levengood were sitting here with me, he would say, “All I can do is, I can take you from the ground– I can take you from the crops, up. But I can’t tell you what sets in motion that spinning plasma vortex in the first place. It’s still a huge mystery.”
The anomalous things that happen inside crop circles are in fact one of the indications that you’re in a so-called genuine circle because indeed the weirdest things happen.
Batteries fail– brand-new batteries. People go in with cameras. Cell phones don’t work. There have been people who have started reading all kinds of messages into these crop circles.
Uh, that they have some kind of digital significance that-that you can read. There’s a kind of numerology, and there’ll be a kind of message.
People are really reading something into it.
In terms of who or what is delivering them– we have no way to know that. We only have science fiction that tells us what’s coming to visit us. So, we have to just speculate about where this might be coming from.
We have to wait for whatever the source is to introduce itself to us.
Are we dealing with time travelers?
Are we dealing with spiritual forces from some dimension we don’t understand?
Are we dealing with advanced intelligences that are not even in this galaxy, that are from someplace else?
And is this a form of communication? The conversations keep getting more and more complicated.
Crop circles are a form of contact. We are being contacted.
Just because we don’t have the bodies to shake hands with, we have the evidence that the bodies have left us.
I’m absolutely convinced that crop circles are evidence of intelligent life. There is intelligence bombarding us, winking at us, waving.
Are these mysterious crop circles messages or warnings?
Or might they have another, perhaps more profound, purpose? Could they be futuristic clues guiding us to our ultimate destiny or ancient symbols paving the way for our ultimate destruction?
Belize, Central America.
In 1924 British adventurer Frederick Mitchell-Hedges traveled here with his daughter Anna to explore the ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Lubaantun.
One afternoon Anna climbed to the top of a crumbling pyramid, hoping to see the ocean.
It was high noon and she was at the top, and the way the sun came in, the way the rocks had moved in that there was just a small opening and the light from the sun went through and it hit the top of the skull, and she ran down and she’s all excited.
She said, “There’s someone in there with a flashlight.”
Anna’s father and others in their party were too large to fit inside the small opening of the pyramid, so they tied a rope around Anna and lowered her into the hole.
When she came back up, Anna held the top of a strange crystal skull.
A second search uncovered a matching jaw. The two-piece skull weighed appeared to be carved from a single piece of rock crystal. It’s the only crystal skull which is almost perfectly humanoid. It’s the only crystal skull which has a detachable jaw, and when I say “almost perfectly humanoid,” the one thing which is missing is the sutures on the cranium.
It has a perfect cranium. So it almost suggests that, even though it’s a human crystal skull, those who were carving it somehow felt that this creature was not born.
It somehow came into this world perfectly.
The skull’s appearance created an immediate sensation among the local tribesmen. When the natives saw it, it was like their god had returned. They all started crying and kissing the earth and everything.
They were just so excited, and Mitchell-Hedges seeing this, he presented it to the high priest and they put it in an altar, and for 24 hours a day, they burned flames around the crystal skull.
The Mayan elders believed that, in ancient times, secret places around the world.
Currently it is claimed that seven have been found.
Four are in private collections and one each in the British Museum, the Smithsonian, and the Quai Branly Museum in Paris.
All have been the focus of intense examination, speculation, and even worship.
A lot of natives and a lot of people working with crystal skulls say that the high quartz content skulls and especially the quartz skulls themselves are the highest frequency or energy or vibration possible on the physical plane, and so a lot of native people kind of worshipped or took care of these objects because they knew that they had or felt that they had the highest energy possible on the earth plane.
But what are the exact origins of these mysterious crystal skulls?
Since their discovery, scientific tests have determined that the two owned by the British Museum and the Quai Branly were not authentic pre-Columbian artifacts.
Could it be that the Mitchell- Hedges skull was also a fake?
In the 1960s it underwent extensive testing by art curator Frank Dorland and the Hewlett- Packard Company.
They used the most advanced stuff that they had.
They could not find any marks on it except for around the jaw and, I think, a little bit around the eyes– the only place they saw tool marks using their techniques.
At the time, Hewlett-Packard found that the temperature always stays about the same temperature, no matter if it’s in hot or cold.
It was carved against the lines of the crystal.
If anybody tried to do that, it would break into a thousand pieces.
It’s made out of a high level of electronic crystal, and they’re not really sure exactly where it came from.
If you listen to the academics, crystal skulls are all modern fabrications, meaning somebody has gone on there with a wheel and has carved them as such, and this is where the big divide is between established academics and alternative researchers like myself, who feel that the academics are not using all the available evidence to draw their conclusions, and, in short, we believe that the academics are wrong in their conclusions.
Are these skulls really ancient artifacts? And if not, who or what carved them? Crystal skulls, according to certain stories, yes, they are alien artifacts.
Even some people think they’re made on another planet.
I think there are links between crystal skulls and extraterrestrials, not necessarily that they were carved and created by extraterrestrials.
I’ve been told they were created by humans, but they were created specifically to hold records from alien civilizations.
Could there actually be some type of coded information stored inside these skulls? And if there is, how could it be retrieved? There is a legend that there were 13 skulls and that when the 13 skulls come together, then something significant will change in the world.
Legends suggest that there are 12 additional worlds out there, planets which are inhabited by intelligent species.
Now, we belong to those worlds or to those planets, and our planet Earth is called “planet of the children.”
They also suggest that these 13 crystal skulls that allegedly exist on planet Earth were each brought here from one of those is the one that apparently contains all of the information of all those 12 different worlds.
Within each crystal skull, information is stored, and in fact, IBM has shown that too, that quartz crystal can store millions of gigabytes of information, and, in fact, any quartz crystal or a crystal skull could hold much more information than any computer we have now.
So when these crystal skulls would be brought together, they begin to interface with each other and ultimately a greater knowledge and information is condensed and brought to us, and that’s the legend of the crystal skulls.
But as ancient astronaut theorists maintain, why would visiting aliens have given the crystal skull to the Maya? To what purpose? The skull is a very important motif for the Mayans.
When you look around the Mayan monuments, you see skulls carved pretty much everywhere.
They use it for some of the notations for calendars.
And it is the Mayan calendar that many people refer to when discussing the possibility of a new Armageddon.
Are the skulls somehow linked to this? The current keeper of the Mitchell-Hedges skull believes they are.
We’ve got 2012 just a few years away.
All these different things are happening, the wars, et cetera, and I think the skulls are coming forward to do what they were they were made to do.
But are these skulls the trigger that will begin the dawn of a new era?
Or will they simply be used as a tool by some form of extraterrestrial intelligence to guide mankind to its next stage of evolution? If so, is this intelligence waiting and watching for the right moment?
And from where exactly could it be watching us? If extraterrestrial beings do exist in the universe, where are they? That was the question posed by Enrico Fermi, one of the leading scientists of the 20th century.
Shortly after the Second World War, the famous physicist Enrico Fermi, who was taking part in the Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb, was talking at Los Alamos with some friends about the reports of flying saucers, and Fermi suddenly said, in relation to extraterrestrial intelligent beings, “Where are they?”
And he was simply making the point that if there was a civilization somewhere in the galaxy that had arisen, say, 100 million years ago, then they had plenty of time to spread across the galaxy.
Fermi said, “Gee, if there’s all of these civilizations out there and all of these planets out there, where is everybody?”
The Fermi paradox, as it became known, was an attempt to explain the lack of evidence of aliens despite the mathematical probability of their existence.
Up unto this point, to modern time, no credible scholar, no credible scientist looks at any of the evidence that ancient alien enthusiasts put forth and say, “Yes, this is evidence of ancient aliens.” No credible scholar does that.
Moreover, the whole SETI project– the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence– it’s been going on now for nearly 50 years.
The fact that we have found no radio telescope evidence of extraterrestrials plays very much into the Fermi paradox in that it further indicates: if they’re out there, why aren’t we hearing from them? And we don’t seem to be hearing from them.
But in the 1960s, MIT astrophysicist John Ball rebutted Fermi’s hypothesis with the zoo hypothesis.
The zoo hypothesis says that we are in a zoo or a wilderness area, that they have essentially left alone and are going to leave alone to allow us to develop in our own way and at our own rate.
Extraterrestrials have detected us on Earth, but have chosen not to come here, not to invade, but rather to observe us as we observe animals in the zoo.
They’ve thought, “We’ll do a study of those earthlings and see what sort of people they are.”
Now, why would they do this? Well, if on the one hand, we have nothing they want, that’s surely true.
And on the other hand, we aren’t able to interfere with whatever they’re doing. That’s also surely true.
They’re out there doing their own thing, and they’re not paying any attention to us. And we’re not clever enough to eavesdrop on whatever they’re doing.
That’s the predicament we’re in. We have something that is looking down and monitoring us.
We are on the Petri dish and we can’t get out far enough to see what’s behind those eyes behind that microscope.
If aliens are watching us right now, where are they? Some believe they are sitting out in space in what are called “Lagrange points named after mathematician and astronomer Joseph Lagrange, who discovered them in 1772.
There are five of these points between the sun, the Earth, and our moon.
Lagrange points are points between two bodies where the forces balance equally.
Think of, like, a seesaw when you have a one really heavy person and one really light person.
There’s a kind of balance point in there, and that’s what a Lagrange point is.
Lagrange points are where we send some of our own satellites.
And that’s a point in space where you can just sort of sit there inert for millions of years if you had to without having to worry about in course corrections.
If you go anywhere else in the solar system, uh, then in order to keep pace with Earth as it orbits the sun, you’ve got to continually change your position.
So people have talked about Lagrange points as a place where a spacecraft might hide out because you don’t have to do a lot to stay in that spot.
It’s sort of equally balanced and you just get carried along.
If an extraterrestrial race would have ever visited our solar system, they would have placed a probe in those specific points in order to observe us, to record us, what have you.
So, I mean, this is not something that the ancient astronaut theory has proposed.
This is, you know, university professors, astrophysicists who have proposed this.
Some argue that another reason alien beings have yet to reveal themselves is that they don’t yet consider us worthy.
This forms the basis of John Ball’s jungle hypothesis.
The jungle hypothesis just means that if you have animals, such as ants, that live in the jungle, no matter how many of them you have, their chances of ever having seen a human being are very slim.
Not because we’re hiding or anything, but we just don’t have a reason to go into the jungle and step on anthills.
So, the idea is that we are probably related to advanced extraterrestrial intelligence similar to an anthill might be related to humans.
And the fact that we’ve never seen any extraterrestrial intelligence is just we don’t have anything they want.
We could actually shake hands with something that might have been coming and going on this planet for literally thousands, perhaps millions, of years, and has kept a distance during the last age of man for reasons unknown, and maybe is waiting for us all to finally grow up.
One thing that can be said with a great deal of confidence is that, if the contact is initiated by them, they are going to be not only superior to us but greatly superior to us.
They won’t be just beginners like we are. They will be far more advanced than we are.
Both the jungle and zoo hypotheses propose that alien beings are watching us, but are, for the time being, keeping their distance.
But what if they’re not? What if the alien mission was to integrate with our society in a way that avoids detection? If so, might they be walking among us right now? According to the ancient astronaut theory, aliens may have come to Earth for many reasons: to excavate, to breed, to conquer, or simply to explore.
Certainly, we want to go out and find out about things we don’t know about.
We see the moon. We want to go up to the moon and find out more things about it; we see Mars, we want to go there. We want to go to Jupiter. We send out our probes.
So, if aliens are something like us, then perhaps they have that same kind of motivation.
They just want to go learn.
Just like we exhibit curiosity, there are other species out there that have the same trait. It would be very egotistical to think that we’re the only explorers in this galaxy.
I mean, that would be a very sad statement to suggest we’re the only ones with a brain and want to go out there and explore.
But while our own journeys into space have been brief and largely exploratory, could other beings, traveling millions of miles to Earth, have stayed? And, if so, might they still be among us?
Many ancient astronaut theorists think this all happened in the past and the extraterrestrials came here, did this and did that, and then they took off back to their own planet.
But there’s a lot of evidence to show that extraterrestrials who might have come here in the past, they’ve never left.
They have bases somewhere on the planet underneath the oceans, inside mountains.
In South America, there are very strong beliefs that many UFO’s come out of lakes and underwater.
Lake Titicaca and other lakes in Peru and Bolivia and other areas of South America have some kind of underground, underwater alien base associated with them.
If aliens were coming to our planet, there seems little doubt that they would stop at the moon on their way here.
The moon itself is kind of the eye in the sky.
NASA says that the moon is apparently hollow.
During the Apollo missions, the command module crashed into the moon.
And the moon rang like a bell for hours.
There are craters on the moon which they cannot find a bottom to.
It’s thought by some researchers, that these bottomless craters are entrances inside our moon.
The whole enigma of the moon gets weirder and weirder the more you know it.
Was the moon actually brought here from another solar system and put into orbit around our planet? Biologists say that life on this planet could never have occurred without our moon.
And the reason for that is that the moon creates the tidal effect.
And without the effect of tides and this rhythmic motion on the oceans, life would never have begun on this planet.
In my mind, the evidence is there that the moon is a gigantic spaceship in orbit around our planet.
It’s occupied by some extraterrestrial race.
In many ways, it’s much like the George Lucas Death Star concept in Star Wars where they’re building this artificial moon that’s capable, with technology, of actually destroying a planet.
But if alien beings are using the moon as some sort of satellite for Earth observation, why? What would be the purpose? And where is the proof? They would like to see us evolve.
You know, they are great masters, great avatars.
They are very high. And so are we. And we need to live up to our potential.
We really need to live up to our potential for all people.
Your attention, please. Today, we are living still, as if we are alone in the universe while hundreds and thousands of people are seeing unusual crafts in the skies as they did 5,000 years ago.
And so, in a way, the idea that the ancient aliens would finally be coming around full circle all the way into the 21st century trying to push open a truth that governments have suppressed in the 20th century is really very ironic.
There are many diverse and conflicting theories concerning the idea that alien astronauts have been visiting the earth for centuries.
But perhaps the proof lies in the most obvious place of all: right within ourselves.
Somewhere in our genes, it is coded that extraterrestrials were here thousands of years ago.
And it takes a certain time before this message is open to us, maybe in the brain.
I don’t believe extraterrestrials, E.T’s, ancient astronauts are the missing link.
I think what they very well could be, they may be the beginning of the link– the link that helped genetically alter human beings, the link that jump-started our civilization the way we are today.
It’s very possible they came down here and saw some creature, and they said, “You know what? We’re going to jump-start this.”
It may take another ten million years for this thing to become smart and intelligent.
So they created us.
And we’re smart and intelligent now, aren’t we?
NOTE: This article is an edited version of episode three, season one, of the TV Series Ancient Aliens. Our editors worked hard to correct out any mistakes, and arrange the context so that our readers can enjoy reading through the episodes, without having to watch them. I believe that when you read through these episodes, you can imagine (reconstruct) what the participants of the Series were trying to say in a much more efficient, a much richer way.